The Textbook of Spinal Surgery.
The Textbook of Spinal Surgery
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Publication Date: 2011
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ISBN/ISSN: 9780781786201

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Recognized as one of the leading references on the spine, this comprehensive two-volume text brings together experts from around the world to discuss the full scope of spinal surgery. This edition has many new contributors, including both neurosurgeons and orthopaedic surgeons, and presents a broad survey of all aspects of spinal surgery, including degenerative disorders, deformities, tumors, fractures, infections, and more.

Chapters describe current surgical techniques in detail and discuss indications, preoperative and postoperative care, and possible complications. More than 3,500 illustrations complement the text, and bulleted points, tables, and algorithms are used extensively throughout.

A companion Website with the fully searchable text and procedural video is included with the two-volume text.

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--Describes surgical treatment in great detail
--Extensive use of bulleted points, tables, and algorithms
--Outstanding list of contributors
--THIRD EDITION HIGHLIGHTS:
  • Many new contributors from both the neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery communities
  • More focus on degenerative spine disorders
  • Short techniques chapters
  • Companion Website with fully searchable text and procedural video
Ronald L. DeWald MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush Medical College; Director, Section of Spinal Surgery, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL

Keith H. Bridwell MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO


Edition: 3
ISBN/ISSN: 9780781786201
Product Format: Hardbound
Trim Size: 8.5 x 11
Pages: 2112
Pub Date: 2011
Weight: 12.1

Volume I

SECTION I: General Considerations

SECTION EDITOR: JOHN M. RHEE

1. The Evolution of Spine Surgery since the Second Edition of The Textbook of Spinal Surgery. 1

RONALD L. DEWALD

2. Spinal Cord and Nerve Root Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

ANNE M. PADBERG, BARRY L. RAYNOR, EARL D. THUET, AND SHELLY M. BOLON

3. Bone Grafting and Spine Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

JOHN LOUIS-UGBO AND SCOTT D. BODEN

4. Medical Complications in the Adult Spinal Patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

ALEXIS B.C. DANG AND SERENA S. HU

5. Trunk Range of Motion and Gait Considerations in Patients with Spinal Deformity. 57

JACK R. ENGSBERG, LAWRENCE G. LENKE, AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

SECTION II: Biomechanics

SECTION EDITOR: TIMOTHY R. KUKLO

6. General Considerations of Biomechanical Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

ANTON E. DMITRIEV

7. Basic Pedicle Screw and Construct Biomechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

C.H. CRAWFORD III, B.A. O’SHAUGHNESSY, AND T.R. KUKLO

8. Biomechanics of Three-Dimensional Scoliosis Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

ANDREW G. S. KING AND MANISH P. LAMBAT

9. Treatment Considerations and Biomechanics of the Lumbosacral Spine . . . . . . . . 86

GEOFFREY CRONEN AND TIMOTHY R. KUKLO

10. Normal Spinal Anatomy: Normal Sagittal Plane Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

MARK BERNHARDT

SECTION III: Anatomic Approaches

SECTION EDITOR: RONALD A. LEHMAN, JR.

11. “Microscopic” Approach to the Posterior Lumbar Spine for Decompression . . . 101

JASON P. YOUNG AND PAUL H. YOUNG

12. Minimal Access Techniques Using Tubular Retractors for Disc Herniations and Stenosis. 110

NEEL ANAND AND ELI M. BARON

13. Anterior Cervical Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

RONALD A. LEHMAN JR AND K. DANIEL K. RIEW

14. Jaw-Splitting Approaches to the Upper Cervical Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

DANIEL M. SCIUBBA, GREGORY S. MCLOUGHLIN, ZIYA L. GOKASLAN, AND JEAN-PAUL WOLINSKY

15. The Modifi ed Anterior Approach to the Cervicothoracic Junction . . . . . . . . . . . 140

KAMRAN MAJID AND HARRY N. HERKOWITZ

16. Transsternal Approaches to the Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

DANIEL M. SCIUBBA, CLARKE NELSON, JEAN-PAUL WOLINSKY, AND ZIYA L. GOKASLAN

17. Anterior Exposure of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Down to L4 . . . . . . . . . . 158

MELVIN D. HELGESON AND RONALD A. LEHMAN JR

18. Anterior Approaches to the Distal Lumbar Spine and Sacrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

JOHN E. TIS AND RONALD A. LEHMAN JR

19. Direct Lateral Approach to the Lumbar Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

NEEL ANAND AND ELI M. BARON

SECTION IV: The Cervical Degenerative Spine

SECTION EDITOR: JOHN M. RHEE

20. Cervical State of the Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

JOHN M. RHEE

21. Evaluation of Axial Neck Pain. Who is a Surgical Candidate and Who Isn’t:

How to Manage the Nonoperative Treatment, How to Work Up the Pathology . . . 185

KEITH RINKUS AND JOHN M. RHEE

22. Cervical Radiculopathy: Clinical Evaluation and Nonoperative Treatment . . . . . 196

PETER S. ROSE, JOHN M. RHEE, AND K. DANIEL RIEW

23. Cervical Spondylosis and Radiculopathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

ANDELLE L. TENG, COREY WALLACH, AND JEFFREY C. WANG

24. Cervical Myelopathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

JOHN M. RHEE, SUSHIL K. BASRA, AND K. DANIEL RIEW

25. Occipitocervical and Atlantoaxial Methods of Fusion: C1-2 Fixation, Harms Screw, Magerl Screw, Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                  225

RAHEEL AHMED, VINCENT C. TRAYNELIS, AND ALEXANDER R. VACCARO

26. Anterior Decompression, Instrumentation, Fusion Techniques: Corpectomy, Strut Grafting . 236

AHMAD NASSR, RAVI K. PONNAPPAN, AND JAMES D. KANG

27. Anterior Decompression, Instrumentation, Fusion Techniques: Discectomy, Foraminotomy, Disc Space Carpentry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                    . 253

RAVI K. PONNAPPAN, AHMAD NASSR, AND JAMES D. KANG

28. Anterior Cervical Plating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

ANDREW W. MACK, RONALD A. LEHMAN III, AND TIMOTHY R. KUKLO

29. Indications and Techniques for Transoral and Foramen Magnum Decompression . 276

ARNOLD H. MENEZES

30. Subaxial Posterior Decompression and Fusion Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

DOUGLAS D. NOWAK, KORNELIS A. POELSTRA, AND STEVEN C. LUDWIG

31. Subaxial Posterior Foraminotomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

DOUGLAS D. NOWAK, RA’KERRY K. RAHMAN, KORNELIS A. POELSTRA, AND STEVEN C. LUDWIG

32. Subaxial Posterior Laminoplasty and Laminectomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

DOUGLAS D. NOWAK, KORNELIS A. POELSTRA, AND STEVEN C. LUDWIG

33. Subaxial Posterior Lateral Mass Fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

MELVIN D. HELGESON AND RONALD A. LEHMAN JR.

34. Subaxial Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

KUNIYOSHI ABUMI, MANABU ITO, AND HIDEKI SUDO

35. Revision Cervical Spine Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

BRIAN A. O’SHAUGHNESSY, CHARLES H. CRAWFORD III, RONALD L. LEHMAN, AND TIMOTHY R. KUKLO

36. Cervical Disc Arthroplasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

WELLINGTON K. HSU AND PAUL A. ANDERSON

SECTION V: The Thoracic and Lumbar Degenerative Spine

SECTION EDITOR: TIMOTHY R. KUKLOW

37. Thoracic and Lumbar Degenerative Disorders: State of the Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

38. Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Axial Back Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

KATHRYN KEELER AND JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

39. Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Radicular Pathology. Who Is a Surgical Candidate and Who Isn’t ..                                                                                                                                                                              367

KATHRYN A. KEELER AND JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

40. Use of Discography to Evaluate Lumbar Back Pain with an Eye Toward Surgical Treatment . 376

EUGENE J. CARRAGEE AND ANGUS S. DON

41. Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

DAVID LEE SPENCER

42. Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394

GBOLAHAN O. OKUBADEJO AND JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

43. Revision Laminectomy: Indications and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402

PETER D. ANGEVINE

44. Strategies and Techniques for Dural Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

CHRIS J. NEAL, TYLER KOSKI, AND STEPHEN L. ONDRA

45. When to Consider ALIF, TLIF, PLIF, PSF, or Motion-Preserving Techniques .. 418

DAVID W. POLLY AND EDWARD RAINIER G. SANTOS

46. Motion-Preservation Techniques (Other Than Disc Arthroplasty) . . . . . . . . . . . 428

JOHN G. DEVINE

47. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion/Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. 436

CHRISTOPHER R. GOOD AND TIMOTHY R. KUKLO

48. Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445

MICHAEL K. ROSNER AND VICTORIA A. CAMPBELL

49. Minimally Invasive Posterior Surgery for the Lumbar Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

JAMES D. SCHWENDER AND BRIAN C. HSU

50.1. Total Disc Replacement: Concepts/Design Strategy/Indications/ Contraindications/Complications .                                                                                                                                                                            463

JAMES J. YUE, BRANDON LAWRENCE, AND FRED MO

50.2. Total Disc Replacement—Maverick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

MATTHEW F. GORNET

50.3. Lumbar Total Disc Replacement: CHARITE Artifi cial Disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

OREN N. GOTTFRIED AND DARREL S. BRODKE

50.4. Total Disc Replacement: ProDisc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493

UFUK TALU, RUDOLF BERTAGNOLI, HARTMANN HABBICHT, GANESH SWAMY, AND SERENA S. HU

51. Revision Lumbar Spine Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

JOSHUA D. AUERBACH AND TIMOTHY R. KUKLO

52. Complications of Lumbosacral Spine Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513

JOHN R. DIMAR II

53. The Future: Disc Regeneration and Other Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525

DANIEL K. PARK, MICHAEL B. ELLMAN, KERN SINGH, AND HOWARD S. AN

54. Posterior Dynamic Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534

ZACHARY A. SMITH AND LAWRENCE T. KHOO

55. Thoracic Discectomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539

DAVID J. MOLLER AND JOHN C. LIU

56. Thoracic Stenosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546

TYLER KOSKI AND FADI NASR

SECTION VI: Spondylolisthesis

SECTION EDITOR: CHARLES C. EDWARDS II

57. Spondylolisthesis: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

CHARLES EDWARDS II AND MARK WEIDENBAUM

58. Wiltse and Marchetti/Bartolozzi Classifi cations of Spondylolisthesis—Guidelines for Treatment . 556

RA’KERRY K. RAHMAN, JOSEPH PERRA, AND MARK WEIDENBAUM

59. Sacro-Pelvic Morphology, Spino-Pelvic Alignment, and the Spinal Deformity Study Group Classifi cation . ..                                                                                                                                                563

HUBERT LABELLE AND JEAN-MARC MAC-THIONG

60. The Natural History of Spondylolisthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576

KIM HAMMERBERG AND MUSTAFA KHAN

61. Pars Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581

PURNENDU GUPTA AND MUNISH C. GUPTA

62.1. Low-Grade Spondylolisthesis in Children and Adolescents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590

M. TIMOTHY HRESKO

62.2. Low-Grade Spondylolisthesis in Adults: Surgical Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

STEVEN MARDJETKO

63. Adult Degenerative Spondylolisthesis Without Lysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

STEVEN S. AGABEGI, DAVID M. MONTGOMERY, AND HARRY N. HERKOWITZ

64. High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Fusion In Situ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

MAURICIO A. CAMPOS DAZIANO AND STUART WEINSTEIN

65. High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Partial Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638

PIERRE ROUSSOULY AND RICHARD B. MEYRAT

66. High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: Posterior Decompression and Spanning/Dowel Fibula .. . 646

RICK C. SASSO AND JAMES E. LASHLEY

67. High Dysplastic Spondylolisthesis: Anatomic Reduction. The Harms/Shuffl ebarger Technique . 660

HARRY L. SHUFFLEBARGER

68. Reduction of High-Grade Spondylolisthesis: The Edwards Technique . . . . . . . . 668

CHARLES C. EDWARDS AND CHARLES C. EDWARDS II

69. The L5 Vertebrectomy Approach for the Treatment of Spondyloptosis with Reduction of L4 onto S1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                         . 686

JULIAN A. ROMAGNOLI, JWALANT S. MEHTA, AND ROBERT W. GAINES

70. Complications of Spondylolysis/Spondylolisthesis Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701

JOHN P. LUBICKY AND AMER ZENI

Volume II

SECTION VII: Idiopathic Scoliosis

SECTION EDITOR: CHARLES C. EDWARDS II

71. Introduction to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709

CHARLES C. EDWARDS II AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

72. Natural History Including Measures of Maturity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711

JAMES O. SANDERS

73. Clinical Assessment and Parent–Patient Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721

ANTHONY RINELLA

74. Spinal Deformity Outcomes Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728

RUDOLPH CHRISTOPHER GLATTES, DOUGLAS C. BURTON, AND SUE MIN LAI

75. Radiographic Classifi cation Scheme: Lenke Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738

LAWRENCE G. LENKE

76. Fusionless Surgery and Growing Rod Techniques for Infantile and Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                     . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754

BEHROOZ A. AKBARNIA, GEORGE H. THOMPSON, AND GREGORY M. MUNDIS JR

77. Stapling Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766

TIMOTHY S. OSWALD, PATRICK J. CAHILL, AMER F. SAMDANI, AND RANDAL R. BETZ

78. Open and Thoracoscopic Anterior Thoracic Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778

PETER O. NEWTON AND VIDYADHAR V. UPASANI

79. Thoracoplasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792

DAVID H. CLEMENTS, AMER F. SAMDANI, AND RANDAL R. BETZ

80. Evolution of Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . 800

GBOLAHAN O. OKUBADEJO AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

81. Short Segment “Bone-on-Bone” Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis . . . 808

JULIAN A. ROMAGNOLI AND ROBERT W. GAINES

82. Posterior Spinal Deformity Correction Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823

BRIAN A. O’SHAUGHNESSY AND LAWRENCE G. LENKE

83. Anterior Lumbar and Thoracolumbar Correction and Fusion for AIS . . . . . . . . 848

DANIEL J. SUCATO, HONG ZHANG, AND CHARLES E. JOHNSTON

84. Treatment of Thoracic Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866

KEITH H. BRIDWELL

85. Selective Thoracic Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889

BRETT FREEDMAN, CHARLES EDWARDS II, AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

86. Complications Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery . . . . . . . 905

MARK C. LEE, B. STEPHENS RICHARDS, AND CHARLES E. JOHNSTON

SECTION VIII: Adult Spinal Deformity

SECTION EDITOR: CHRISTOPHER L. HAMILL

87. Adult Spinal Deformity—Introduction/State of the Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919

CHRISTOPHER L. HAMILL

88. Adult Spinal Deformity Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921

FRANK SCHWAB, SIGURD BERVEN, AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

89. De Novo Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929

ASHISH PATEL, FRANK SCHWAB, AND JEAN-PIERRE FARCY

90. Sagittal Imbalance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938

CHRISTOPHER L. HAMILL, PETER D. ANGEVINE, AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

91. Fixed Coronal Imbalance of the Spine: Clinical Signifi cance and Operative Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                              . 948

BRIAN HSU AND SIGURD BERVEN

92. Spinal Deformity in the Older Patient With Kyphosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962

FRANK L. ACOSTA JR, TYLER KOSKI, AND STEPHEN L. ONDRA

93. Revision Surgeries for Adult Spinal Deformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970

MATTHEW E. CUNNINGHAM AND OHENEBA BOACHIE-ADJEI

94. Smith-Petersen Osteotomy of the Spine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 982

DOUGLAS C. BURTON

95. Pedicle Subtraction Procedures for Complex Spinal Deformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987

BRIAN A. O’SHAUGHNESSY, JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI, AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

96. Vertebral Column Resection for Complex Spinal Deformity: Posterior Approach . . 999

SE-IL SUK

97. Vertebral Column Resection for Complex Spinal Deformity: Anterior and Posterior Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                          . . . 1015

SIGURD BERVEN AND DAVID S. BRADFORD

98. Minimally Invasive Deformity Surgery: Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021

FADI NASR, TYLER KOSKI, JOHN LIU, STEPHEN ONDRA, AND RICHARD FESSLER

99. Fusion to the Sacrum and Fixation Techniques of the Sacropelvic Junction . . . 1031

ANGEL E. MACAGNO AND MICHAEL F. O’BRIEN

100. Structural Grafting for Adult Spinal Deformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1052

PETER D. ANGEVINE AND KEITH H. BRIDWELL

SECTION IX: Dysplastic and Congenital Deformities

SECTION EDITOR: SCOTT J. LUHMANN

101. Introduction/State of the Art in the Care of Dysplastic and

Congenital Spine Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059

SCOTT J. LUHMANN

102. Dysplastic Scoliosis: Neurofi bromatosis Spinal Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062

ALVIN H. CRAWFORD, AND KEITH R. GABRIEL

103. Spinal Deformities in Marfan Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1078

PAUL D. SPONSELLER

104. Spinal Deformity in Skeletal Dysplasia Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1084

ERIC D. SHIRLEY AND MICHAEL C. AIN

105. The Spine in Osteogenesis Imperfecta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099

PAUL D. SPONSELLER AND SERGIO A. GLAIT

106. Spinal Deformity in Familial Dysautonomia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107

DAVID S. FELDMAN, FULYA ÜSTÜNKAN, AND DEBRA A. SALA

107. Congenital Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118

MICHAEL J. MCMASTER

108. Hemivertebra Resection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139

MICHAEL RUF AND JÜRGEN HARMS

109. Congenital Intraspinal Anomalies: Spinal

Dysraphism—Embryology, Pathology, and Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1149

JEFFREY LEONARD, M. MOHSIN SHAH, AND BRUCE KAUFMAN

110. Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179

ROBERT M. CAMPBELL JR.

111. Congenital Anomalies of the Cervical Spine in Children:Management of Segmental Instability and Spinal Canal Encroachment . . . . . .                                                                                     1194

HARISH S. HOSALKAR, DANIELLE B. CAMERON, AND DENIS S. DRUMMOND

SECTION X: Paralytic Deformity

SECTION EDITOR: SCOTT J. LUHMANN

112. Introduction/State of the Art in the Care of the Paralytic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                 . . . 1209

SCOTT J. LUHMANN

113. Paralytic Scoliosis and the Spastic Patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214

THOMAS G. MCPARTLAND AND JOHN B. EMANS

114. Surgical Treatment of Flaccid Neuromuscular Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229

GILBERT CHAN, DAVID A. SPIEGEL, AND DENIS S. DRUMMOND

115. Surgical Treatment of Myelomeningocele Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244

RICHARD E. MCCARTHY

116. Management of Paralytic Neuromuscular Disorders with an

Emphasis on Pelvic Obliquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252

DANIEL J. HEDEQUIST

117. Role of Halo Traction and Halo-Femoral Traction in

Paralytic/Neuromuscular Scoliosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265

SCOTT J. LUHMANN AND DAVID L. SKAGGS

SECTION XI: Kyphosis and Postlaminectomy Deformities

SECTION EDITOR: PETER D. ANGEVINE

118. Introduction and Current State of the Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1279

PETER ANGEVINE

119. Cervical Instability and Kyphosis (Rheumatoid,

Dwarfi sm, Degenerative, Others) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1281

ERIC HARRIS, JAMES LAWRENCE, JEFFREY RIHN, JOSEPH GONDUSKY, AND

ALAN HILIBRAND

120. Surgical Treatment of Scheuermann’s Kyphosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1295

ANGEL E. MACAGNO, MICHAEL F. O’BRIEN, AND HARRY L. SHUFFLEBARGER

121. Short-Segment Anterior Fusion of Symptomatic Scheuermann’s Disease . . . . . 1312

JWALANT S. MEHTA AND ROBERT W. GAINES

122. Postlaminectomy Deformities in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine . . . . . . . . . . 1326

BRANDON G. ROCQUE, SHARAD RAJPAL, AND DANIEL K. RESNICK

123. Posttraumatic Deformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332

JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

124. Ankylosing Spondylitis/Thoracolumbar Deformities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1340

CHRISTOPHER L. HAMILL

125. Cervicothoracic Extension Osteotomy for Chin-On-Chest Deformity . . . . . . . 1345

CHRISTOPHER G. FUREY

126. The Role of Osteotomies in the Cervical Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1355

K. DANIEL RIEW AND ADAM L. WOLLOWICK

SECTION XII: Trauma

SECTION EDITOR: RONALD A. LEHMAN, JR.

127. Trauma State of the Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377

RONALD A. LEHMAN, JR. AND TOBIN ECKEL

128. Classifi cation of Cervical Spine Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1381

ALPESH A. PATEL, ALEXANDER R. VACCARO, AND PAUL A. ANDERSON

129. Classifi cation of Thoracic and Lumbar Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390

RONALD A. LEHMAN, JR., JASON T. BESSEY, AND ALEXANDER R. VACCARO

130. Surgical Management of Cervical Spine Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399

KELLEY BANAGAN AND DANIEL GELB

131. Anterior and Posterior Instrumentation Techniques Used in the

Thoracic Spine for Treatment of Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411

DAVID H. KIM, JEFFREY A. RIHN, AND TODD J. ALBERT

132. Surgical Treatment of Thoracolumbar and Lumbar Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424

MICHAEL D. DAUBS AND ROBERT SHAY BESS

133. Anterior Decompression Techniques for Thoracic and Lumbar Fractures . . . . . 1439

DAVIS L. REAMES, D. KOJO HAMILTON, TOOMAS ANTON, AND

CHRISTOPHER I. SHAFFREY

134. Minimal Access Techniques for Spine Trauma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1449

JOSEPH RIINA, DAVID G. SCHWARTZ, JASON E. SMITH, AND KATHY J. FLINT

135. Management and Surgical Treatment of Fractures of

the Lumbosacral Region and the Sacrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1460

CARLO BELLABARBA, THOMAS A. SCHILDHAUER, M.L. CHIP ROUTT, AND

JENS R. CHAPMAN

136. Novel Approaches to Neural Repair and Regeneration

After Spinal Cord Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474

ELENA OKON, JESSICA HILLYER, AND BRIAN K. KWON

SECTION XIII: Tumor and Osteomyelitis

SECTION EDITOR: PETER D. ANGEVINE

137. Introduction and State of the Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485

PETER D. ANGEVINE

138. Benign Tumors of the Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1487

SUMEET GARG AND JOHN P. DORMANS

139. Primary Malignant Tumors of the Spine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1499

GREGORY S. MCLOUGHLIN, DANIEL M. SCIUBBA, AND JEAN-PAUL WOLINSKY

140. The Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Spine Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511

ILYA LAUFER, PETER S. ROSE, AND MARK H. BILSKY

141. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1520

KAZUTOSHI HIDA

142. Intradural, Extramedullary Spinal Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535

ALFRED T. OGDEN AND PAUL C. MCCORMICK

143. Spinal Vascular Malformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1544

MICHELLE J. CLARKE, WILLIAM E. KRAUSS, AND MARK A. PICHELMANN

14 4. Spinal Infection/Osteomyelitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1553

SANFORD E. EMERY AND RYAN T. GOCKE

145. Tumors of the Sacrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1560

ALEXANDRE RASOULI, H. THOMAS TEMPLE, AND FRANK J. EISMONT

146. Adjuvant Therapy of Spinal Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1575

ILYA LAUFER, YOSHIYA YAMADA, AND MARK H. BILSKY

SECTION XIV: Complications

SECTION EDITOR: JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

147. Introduction/State-of-the-Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1581

JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

148. Neurological Complications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1584

LUKAS P. ZEBALA AND JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

149. Reconstruction of Complex Spinal Wounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1591

BRENDAN COLLINS AND RICHARD J. REDETT

150. Vascular Complications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1598

GREGORY GEBAUER AND A. JAY KHANNA

151. Postoperative Early and Late Wound/Implant Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1608

SUMEET GARG AND JACOB M. BUCHOWSKI

152. Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula and Pseudomeningocele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617

KENE UGOKWE AND EDWARD C. BENZEL

153. Pseudarthrosis in Spinal Deformity Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1622

YONGJUNG J. KIM AND PETER D. ANGEVINE

154. Legal Implications and Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1633

JANICE F. MULLIGAN, HEATHER HANSEN, JESSICA UITTO,

PAUL CRAIG, AND STEVEN R. GARFIN

155. Unresolved Postoperative Spine Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1649

WILLIAM C. LAUERMAN AND STEVEN C. SCHERPING

156. Medical Complications Associated with Spinal Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1665

ELI M. BARON AND TODD J. ALBERT


PROD-ECOMM2 qw5obamn2pndwzfuxkuvyyst 184.72.82.126