diFiore's Atlas of Histology

diFiore's Atlas of Histology

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Publication Date: 2012
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ISBN/ISSN: 9781451113419

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diFiore's Atlas of Histology with Functional Correlations explains basic histology concepts through realistic, full-color composite and idealized illustrations of histologic structures. Added to the illustrations are actual photomicrographs of similar structures, a popular trademark of the atlas. All structures are directly correlated with the most important and essential functional correlations, allowing students to efficiently learn histologic structures and their major functions at the same time.

 

This new edition features:

  • Expanded Introduction on basic histology techniques and staining as well as a more comprehensive list of stains that students may encounter in their histology course
  • New chapter on cell biology accompanied by both drawings and representative photomicrographs of the main stages in the cell cycle during mitosis
  • Contents reorganized into four parts, progressing logically from Methods and Microscopy through Tissues and Systems
  • Improved art program with digitally enhanced images to provide increased detail
  • More than 40 new photomicrograph images, including light and transmission electron micrographs
  • Student Resources: Online E-book, Interactive Question Bank for chapter review, and Interactive Atlas featuring all images from the book + more than 450 additional micrographs

diFiore’s Atlas of Histology is the perfect resource for medical and graduate histology students.

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  • NEW! Expanded Introduction including a new section that briefly describes the histology techniques, a new section on the cell cycle, and a more comprehensive list of different stains that students may encounter in examining the histology images during the course
  • NEW!  In-text references to the bonus online images
  • NEW!  Replacement/updating color of select micrograph-style illustrations
  • NEW!  Revised design to make the most use of space and showcase images
  • NEW!  Revised Table of Contents now includes 4 parts and updated chapter titles to more accurately reflect their contents
  • NEW!  Student ancillaries: Online e-book, Interactive question bank
  • NEW!  Updated chapter opening illustrations  
  • NEW!  Updated functional information that pertains to different cells, tissues, and organs of the body that are illustrated in the atlas
  • NEW!  USMLE-style review questions and answers for each chapter (approximately 15 per chapter; approximately 315 for the book)
  • Bold key terms for emphasis to help with learning and review
  • Chapter opening overview illustrations (12) provide an overview of the tissue or organ being discussed
  • Chapter summary outlines (bullets) for review
  • Digitized full-color illustrations of histology slides (idealized for efficient learning)
  • Faculty ancillaries: Image Bank (including all images in the book + additional micrographs)
  • Full labels on images rather than abbreviations for faster learning
  • Functional Correlations boxes (112) help students study structure and function together
  • Over 70 micrographs adjacent to illustrations to provide a realistic perspective
  • Student ancillaries: Interactive Atlas including all of the images in the book + more than 450 additional micrographs for reference and self-study
Victor P. Eroschenko PhD
Professor of Anatomy, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho WWAMI Medical Program, Moscow, ID


Edition: 12
ISBN/ISSN: 9781451113419
Product Format: Softbound
Trim Size: 8.375 x 10.875
Pages: 624
Pub Date: 2012
Weight: 2.95
CONTENTS
 
PART I—INTRODUCTION
 
Chapter 1: HISTOLOGIC METHODS
 
Section 1—Histologic Methods
Section 2—Histologic Slide Interpretation
Figure 1.1 Kidney cortex with renal corpuscle and different convoluted tubules.
Figure 1.2 Skeletal muscle sectioned in longitudinal plane and cross section with surrounding blue staining connective tissue.
Figure 1.3 Villus of small intestine with brush border, columnar epithelium, and goblet cells.
Figure 1.4 Section of a wall from aorta, showing the presence of dark staining elastic fibers and the pink smooth muscles.
Figure 1.5 Intramembanous ossification in skull bones showing the blue connective tissue, red blood cells and blood vessels with blood cells.
Figure 1.6 Blood smear with different cells and platelets.
Figure 1.7 Cross section of the spinal cord showing the gray and white matter.
Figure 1.8 Cross section of a peripheral nerve, showing the myelin sheath of the axons.
Figure 1.9 Small artery and veins, showing blood cells and the surrounding connective tissues.
FIGURE 1.10 ¦ Planes of sections through a round object, a hard-boiled, solid egg.
FIGURE 1.11 ¦ Planes of section through a hollow object, a tube.
FIGURE 1.12 ¦ Tubules of the testis in different planes of section.                                       1
 
PART II—Cell and Cytoplasm
 
CHAPTER 2: Light and Transmission Electron Microscopy
Overview figure 2.1 ¦ Composite illustration of a cell, its cytoplasm, and its organelles.
OVERVIEW FIGURE 2.2 ¦ Composition of cell membrane.
figure 2.1 ¦ Internal and external morphology of ciliated and nonciliated epithelium.
figure 2.2 ¦ Junctional complex between epithelial cells.
figure 2.3 ¦ Basal regions of epithelial cells.
figure 2.4 ¦ Basal region of an ion-transporting cell.
figure 2.5 ¦ Cilia and microvilli.
figure 2.6 ¦ Nuclear envelope and nuclear pores.
figure 2.7 ¦ Mitochondria (longitudinal and cross section).
figure 2.8 ¦ Rough endoplasmic reticulum.
figure 2.9 ¦ Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
figure 2.10 ¦ Golgi apparatus.
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
CHAPTER 3—CELLS AND THE CELL CYCLE
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 3.1 ¦ Cell cycle.
FIGURE 3.1 Different phases of mitosis and cytokinesis.
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
PART III—TISSUES 
 
CHAPTER 4: EPITHELIAL TISSUE
 
Overview figure 4.1 ¦ Different types of epithelia in selected organs.
SECTION 1—Classification of Epithelial Tissue
figure 4.1 ¦ Simple squamous epithelium: surface view of peritoneal mesothelium.
figure 4.2 ¦ Simple squamous epithelium: peritoneal mesothelium surrounding small intestine (transverse section).
figure 4.3 ¦ Different epithelial types in the kidney cortex.
figure 4.4 ¦ Simple columnar epithelium: surface of stomach.
figure 4.5 ¦ Simple columnar epithelium on villi in small intestine: cells with striated borders (microvilli) and goblet cells.
figure 4.6 ¦ Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium: respiratory passages—trachea.
figure 4.7 ¦ Transitional epithelium: bladder (unstretched or relaxed).
figure 4.8 ¦ Transitional epithelium: bladder (stretched).
figure 4.9 ¦ Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium: esophagus.
figure 4.10 ¦ Stratified squamous keratizined epithelium: palm of hand.
figure 4.11 ¦ Stratified cuboidal epithelium: excretory duct in salivary gland.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Section 1
SECTION 2—Classification of Glandular Tissue
figure 4.12 ¦ Unbranched simple tubular exocrine glands: intestinal glands. (A) Diagram of gland. (B) Transverse section of large intestine.
figure 4.13 ¦ Simple branched tubular exocrine gland: gastric glands. (A) Diagram of gland. (B) Transverse section of stomach.
figure 4.14 ¦ Coiled tubular exocrine glands: sweat glands. (A) Diagram of gland. (B) Transverse and three-dimensional view of coiled sweat gland.
figure 4.15 ¦ Compound acinar exocrine gland: mammary gland. (A) Diagram of gland. (B and C) Mammary gland during lactation.
figure 4.16 ¦ Compound tubuloacinar (exocrine) gland: salivary gland. (A) Diagram of gland. (B) Submandibular salivary gland.
figure 4.17 ¦ Compound tubuloacinar (exocrine) gland: submaxillary salivary gland.
figure 4.18 ¦ Endocrine gland: plancreatic islet. (A) Diagram of pancreatic islet. (B) High magnification of endocrine and exocrine pancreas.
figure 4.19 ¦Endocrine and exocrine pancreas.
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Section 2
 
CHAPTER 5: CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 
Overview Figure 5.1 ¦ Composite illustration of loose connective tissue with its predominant cells and fibers.
FIGURE 5.1 ¦ Loose connective tissue (spread). Stained for cells and fibers.
FIGURE 5.2 ¦ Cells of the connective tissue. Stain: hematoxylin and eosin.
FIGURE 5.3 Connective tissue, capillary, and a mast cell in the mesentery of a small intestine.
FIGURE 5.4 ¦ Embryonic connective tissue. Left, low magnification; right, high magnification.
FIGURE 5.5 ¦ Loose connective tissue with blood vessels and adipose cells.
FIGURE 5.6 ¦ Dense irregular and loose irregular connective tissue.
FIGURE 5.7 ¦ Dense irregular and loose irregular connective tissue.
FIGURE 5.8 ¦ Dense irregular connective tissue and adipose tissue.
FIGURE 5.9 ¦ Dense regular connective tissue: tendon (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 5.10 ¦ Dense regular connective tissue: tendon (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 5.11 ¦ Dense regular connective tissue: tendon (transverse section).
FIGURE 5.12 ¦ Adipose tissue in the intestine.
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
CHAPTER 6: HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE
 
Overview figure 6.1 ¦ Differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid stem cells into their mature forms and their distribution in the blood and connective tissue.
SECTION 1—BLOOD
Figure 6.1 ¦ Human blood smear: erythrocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocyte, and platelets.
Figure 6.2 ¦ Human blood smear: red blood cells, neutrophils, large lymphocytes, and platelets.
Figure 6.3 ¦ Erythrocytes and platelets in blood smear.
Figure 6.4 ¦ Neutrophils and erythrocytes.
Figure 6.5 ¦ Eosinophil. Stain: Wright stain.
Figure 6.6 ¦ Lymphocytes. Stain: Wright stain.
Figure 6.7 ¦ Monocyte. Stain: Wright stain.
Figure 6.8 ¦ Basophil. Stain: Wright stain.
Figure 6.9 ¦ Human blood smear: basophil, neutrophil, red blood cells, and platelets.
Figure 6.10 ¦ Human blood smear: monocyte, red blood cells, and platelets.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
SECTION 2—BONE MARROW
Figure 6.11 ¦ Development of different blood cells in red bone marrow (decalcified).
Figure 6.12 ¦ Bone marrow smear: development of different blood cell types.
Figure 6.13 ¦ Bone marrow smear: selected precursors of different blood cells.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1 and 2
 
CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL TISSUE: CARTILAGE AND BONE
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 7.1 ¦ Endochondral ossification illustrating the progressive stages of bone formation, from a cartilage model to bone, including the histology of a section of formed compact bone.
SECTION 1—CARTILAGE
figure 7.1 ¦ Developing fetal hyaline cartilage. Stain: hematoxylin and eosin.
figure 7.2 ¦ Hyaline cartilage and surrounding structures: trachea.
figure 7.3 ¦ Cells and matrix of mature hyaline cartilage.
figure 7.4 ¦ Hyaline cartilage: developing bone.
figure 7.5 ¦ Elastic cartilage: epiglottis.
figure 7.6 ¦ Elastic cartilage: epiglottis.
figure 7.7 ¦ Fibrous cartilage: intervertebral disk.
FIGURE 7.8 Fibrocartilage—Intervertebral disk.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Section 1
SECTION 2—BONE
FIGURE 7.9 ¦ Endochondral ossification: development of a long bone (panoramic view, longitudinal section).
figure 7.10¦ Endochondral ossification: zone of ossification.
figure 7.11 ¦ Endochondral ossification: zone of ossification.
FIGURE 7.12 ¦ Endochondral ossification: formation of secondary (epiphyseal) centers of ossification and epiphyseal plate in long bone (decalcified bone, longitudinal section).
FIGURE 7.13 ¦ Bone formation: primitive bone marrow and development of osteons (Haversian systems; decalcified bone, transverse section).
figure 7.14 ¦ Intramembranous ossification: developing mandible (decalcified bone, transverse section).
figure 7.15 ¦ Intramembranous ossification: developing skull bone.
FIGURE 7.16 ¦ Cancellous bone with trabeculae and bone marrow cavities: sternum (decalcified bone, transverse section).
figure 7.17 ¦ Cancellous bone: sternum (decalcified bone, transverse section).
figure 7.18 ¦ Dry, compact bone: ground, transverse section.
figure 7.19 ¦ Dry, compact bone: ground, longitudinal section. .
figure 7.20 ¦ Dry, compact bone: an osteon, transverse section.
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Section 2
 
CHAPTER 8: MUSCLE TISSUE
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 8.1 ¦ Diagrammatic representation of the microscopic appearance of skeletal muscle.
SECTION 1—SKELETAL MUSCLE
FIGURE 8.1 ¦ Longitudinal and transverse sections of skeletal (striated) muscles of the tongue.
FIGURE 8.2 ¦ Skeletal (striated) muscles of the tongue (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 8.3 ¦ Skeletal muscle fibers (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 8.4 ¦ Ultrastructure of myofibrils in skeletal muscle.
FIGURE 8.5 ¦ Ultrastructure of sarcomeres, T tubules, and triads in skeletal muscle.
FIGURE 8.6 ¦ Skeletal muscles, nerves, axons, and motor end plates.
FIGURE 8.7 ¦ Skeletal muscle with muscle spindle (transverse section).
Overview Figure 8.2 ¦ Diagrammatic representation of the microscopic appearance of cardiac muscle.
SECTION 2—CARDIAC MUSCLE
FIGURE 8.8 ¦ Longitudinal and transverse sections of cardiac muscle.
FIGURE 8.9 ¦ Cardiac muscle (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 8.10 ¦ Cardiac muscle in longitudinal section.
FIGURE 8.11 Ultrastructure of cardiac muscle in longitudinal section.
Overview Figure 8.3 ¦ Diagrammatic representation of the microscopic appearance of smooth muscle.
SECTION 3—SMOOTH MUSCLE 
FIGURE 8.12 Longitudinal and transverse sections of smooth muscle in the wall of the small intestine.
FIGURE 8.13 ¦ Smooth muscle: wall of the small intestine (transverse and longitudinal section).
FIGURE 8.14 Ultrastructure of smooth muscle fibers from a section of an intestinal wall.
Chapter Summary—Sections 1–3
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1–3
 
CHAPTER 9: NERVOUS TISSUE
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 9.1 ¦ Central nervous system. The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. A section of the brain and spinal cord is illustrated with their protective connective tissue layers called meninges (dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater).
SECTION 1—CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
FIGURE 9.1 ¦ Spinal cord: midthoracic region (transverse section).
FIGURE 9.2 ¦ Spinal cord: anterior gray horn, motor neuron, and adjacent white matter.
FIGURE 9.3 ¦ Spinal cord: midcervical region (transverse section).
FIGURE 9.4 ¦ Spinal cord: anterior gray horn, motor neurons, and adjacent anterior white matter.
FIGURE 9.5 Ultrastructure of typical axodendritic synapses in the CNS. Transmission electron micrograph.
FIGURE 9.6 ¦ Motor neurons: anterior horn of spinal cord.
FIGURE 9.7 ¦ Neurofibrils and motor neurons in the gray matter of the anterior horn of the spinal cord.
FIGURE 9.8 ¦ Anterior gray horn of the spinal cord: multipolar neurons, axons, and neuroglial cells.
FIGURE 9.9 ¦ Cerebral cortex: gray matter: 
FIGURE 9.10 ¦ Layer V of the cerebral cortex. .
FIGURE 9.11 ¦ Cerebellum (transverse section).
FIGURE 9.12 ¦ Cerebellar cortex: molecular, Purkinje cell, and granular cell layers.
FIGURE 9.13 ¦ Fibrous astrocytes and capillary in the brain.
FIGURE 9.14 ¦ Ultrastructure of a capillary in the CNS and the perivascular end feet of astrocytes.
FIGURE 9.15 ¦ Oligodendrocytes of the brain.
FIGURE 9.16 ¦ Ultrastructure of an oligodendrocyte in the CNS with myelinated axons.
FIGURE 9.17 ¦ Ultrastructure of myelinated axons in the CNS with the node of Ranvier.
FIGURE 9.18 ¦ Microglia of the brain.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
OVERVIEW FIGURE 9.2 ¦ Peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the cranial and spinal nerves. A cross section of the spinal cord is illustrated with the characteristic features of the motor neuron and a cross section of a peripheral nerve. Also illustrated are types of neurons located in different ganglia and organs outside of the central nervous system.
SECTION 2—PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
FIGURE 9.19 ¦ Peripheral nerves and blood vessels (transverse section).
FIGURE 9.20 ¦ Myelinated nerve fibers (longitudinal and transverse sections).
FIGURE 9.21 ¦ Sciatic nerve (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 9.22¦ Sciatic nerve (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 9.23 ¦ Sciatic nerve (transverse section).
FIGURE 9.24 ¦ Peripheral nerve: nodes of Ranvier and axons.
FIGURE 9.25 Ultrastructure of peripheral nerve fascicle in the PNS cut in transverse plane.
FIGURE 9.26 ¦ Dorsal root ganglion, with dorsal and ventral roots, spinal nerve (longitudinal section.
FIGURE 9.27 ¦ Cells and unipolar neurons of a dorsal root ganglion.
FIGURE 9.28 ¦ Multipolar neurons, surrounding cells, and nerve fibers of the sympathetic ganglion.
FIGURE 9.29¦ Dorsal root ganglion: unipolar neurons and surrounding cells. Stain:
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1 and 2
 
PART IV—SYSTEMS
 
CHAPTER 10: CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 10.1 ¦ Comparison of a muscular artery, a large vein, and the three types of capillaries (transverse sections).
Figure 10.1 ¦ Blood and lymphatic vessels in the connective tissue.
Figure 10.2 ¦ Capillaries sectioned in transverse and longitudinal planes in a mesentery of the small intestine.
FIGURE 10.3 ¦ Ultrastructure of a continuous capillary sectioned in a transverse plane in the CNS.
FIGURE 10.4 ¦ Ultrastructure of a fenestrated capillary sectioned in a transverse plane in the choroid plexus of a CNS ventricle.
FIGURE 10.5 ¦ Muscular artery and vein (transverse section).
FIGURE 10.6 ¦ Artery and vein in dense irregular connective tissue of vas deferens.
Figure 10.7 ¦ Wall of a large elastic artery: aorta (transverse section).
Figure 10.8 ¦ Wall of a large vein: portal vein (transverse section).
FIGURE 10.9 ¦ Heart: a section of the left atrium, atrioventricular valve, and left ventricle (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 10.10 ¦ Heart: a section of right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary valve (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 10.11 ¦ Heart: contracting cardiac muscle fibers and impulse-conducting Purkinje fibers.
Figure 10.12 ¦ A section of heart wall: Purkinje fibers.
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
CHAPTER 11: IMMUNE SYSTEM
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 11.1 ¦ Location and distribution of the lymphoid organs and lymphatic channels in the body. Internal contents of the lymph node and spleen are illustrated in greater detail.
Figure 11.1 ¦ Lymph node (panoramic view).
FIGURE 11.2 ¦ Lymph node: capsule, cortex, and medulla (sectional view).
Figure 11.3 ¦ Cortex and medulla of a lymph node.
FIGURE 11.4 ¦ Lymph node: subcortical sinus, trabecular sinus, reticular cells, and lymphatic nodule.
FIGURE 11.5 ¦ Lymph node: high endothelial venule in the paracortex (deep cortex) of a lymph node.
FIGURE 11.6 ¦ Lymph node: subcapsular sinus, trabecular sinus, and supporting reticular fibers.
Figure 11.7 ¦ Thymus gland (panoramic view).
Figure 11.8 ¦ Thymus gland (sectional view).
Figure 11.9 ¦ Cortex and medulla of a thymus gland.
Figure 11.10 ¦ Spleen (panoramic view).
Figure 11.11 ¦ Spleen: red and white pulp.
Figure 11.12 ¦ Red and white pulp of the spleen.
Figure 11.13 ¦ Palatine tonsil.
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
CHAPTER 12: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
 
Overview Figure 12.1 ¦ Comparison between thin skin in the arm and thick skin in the palm, including the contents of the connective tissue dermis.
SECTION 1—THIN SKIN
FIGURE 12.1 ¦ Thin skin: epidermis and the contents of the dermis.
FIGURE 12.2 ¦ Skin: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis in the scalp.
Figure 12.3 ¦ Hairy thin skin of the scalp: hair follicles and surrounding structures. .
FIGURE 12.4 ¦ Hair follicle: bulb of the hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and arrector pili muscle.
SECTION 2—THICK SKIN
FIGURE 12.5 ¦ Thick skin: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis of the palm.
FIGURE 12.6 Thick skin of the palm, superficial cell layers, and melanin pigment.
FIGURE 12.7 ¦ Thick skin: Epidermis and superficial cell layers.
FIGURE 12.8 ¦ Apocrine sweat gland: secretory and excretory potions of the sweat gland.
FIGURE 12.9 ¦ Cross section and three-dimensional appearance of an eccrine sweat gland. FIGURE 12.10 ¦ Glomus in the dermis of thick skin.
FIGURE 12.11 ¦ Pacinian corpuscles in the dermis of thick skin (transverse and longitudinal sections).
Chapter Summary—Sections 1 and 2
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1 and 2
 
CHAPTER 13: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PART I: ORAL CAVITY AND MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
 
SECTION I—ORAL CAVITY
OVERVIEW FIGURE 13.1 ¦ Oral cavity. The salivary glands and their connections to the oral cavity, morphology of the tongue in cross section, teeth, and detail of a taste bud are illustrated.
FIGURE 13.1 ¦ Lip (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 13.2 ¦ Anterior region of the tongue (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 13.3 ¦ Posterior tongue: circumvallate papilla, surrounding furrow, and serous (von Ebner) glands (cross section).
FIGURE 13.4 ¦ Filiform and fungiform papillae of the tongue.
FIGURE 13.5 ¦ Posterior tongue: taste buds in the furrow of circumvallate papilla.
FIGURE 13.6 ¦ Posterior tongue: posterior to circumvallate papillae and near lingual tonsil (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 13.7 ¦ Lingual tonsils (transverse section).
FIGURE 13.8 ¦ Longitudinal section of dry tooth.
FIGURE 13.9 ¦ Dried tooth. Dentinoenamel junction. Ground and unstained.
FIGURE 13.10 ¦ Dried tooth. Cementum and dentin junction. Ground and unstained.
FIGURE 13.11 ¦ Developing tooth (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 13.12 ¦ Developing tooth: dentinoenamel junction in detail.
OVERVIEW FIGURE 13.2 ¦ Salivary glands. The different types of acini (serous, mucous, and mixed, with serous demilunes), different duct types (intercalated, striated, and interlobular), and myoepithelial cells of a salivary gland are illustrated.
SECTION II—MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS
FIGURE 13.13 ¦ Parotid salivary gland.
FIGURE 13.14 ¦ Submandibular salivary gland.
FIGURE 13.15 ¦ Sublingual salivary gland.
FIGURE 13.16 ¦ Serous salivary gland: parotid gland. .
FIGURE 13.17 ¦ Mixed salivary gland: sublingual gland.
Chapter Summary—Sections 1 and 2
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1 and 2
 
CHAPTER 14: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PART II: ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH
 
SECTION I—ESOPHAGUS
OVERVIEW FIGURE 14.1 ¦ Detailed illustration comparing the structural differences of the four layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and adventitia or serosa) in the wall of the esophagus and stomach.
FIGURE 14.1 ¦ Wall of upper esophagus (transverse section).
FIGURE 14.2 ¦ Upper esophagus (transverse section).
FIGURE 14.3 ¦ Lower esophagus (transverse section).
FIGURE 14.4 ¦ Upper esophagus: mucosa and submucosa (longitudinal view).
FIGURE 14.5 ¦ Lower esophageal wall (transverse section).
FIGURE 14.6 ¦ Esophageal–stomach junction.
FIGURE 14.7 ¦ Esophageal–stomach junction.
SECTION II—STOMACH
FIGURE 14.8 ¦ Stomach: fundus and body regions (transverse section).
FIGURE 14.9 ¦ Stomach: mucosa of the fundus and body (transverse section).
FIGURE 14.10 ¦ Stomach: fundus and body regions (plastic section).
FIGURE 14.11 ¦ Stomach: superficial region of gastric (fundic) mucosa.
FIGURE 14.12 ¦ Stomach: basal region of gastric (fundic) mucosa.
FIGURE 14.13 ¦ Pyloric region of the stomach.
FIGURE 14.14 ¦ Pyloric-duodenal junction (longitudinal section).
Chapter Summary—Sections 1 and 2
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1 and 2
 
CHAPTER 15: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PART III: SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINES
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 15.1 ¦ Structural differences between the wall of the small intestine and large intestine, with emphasis on different layers of the wall.
SECTION 1—SMALL INTESTINE
Figure 15.1 ¦ Duodenum of the small intestine (longitudinal section).
Figure 15.2 ¦ Small intestine: duodenum (transverse section).
Figure 15.3 ¦ Small intestine: jejunum (transverse section).
FIGURE 15.4 ¦ Intestinal glands with Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells.
Figure 15.5 ¦ Small intestine: jejunum with Paneth cells.
FIGURE 15.6 ¦ Small intestine: ileum with lymphatic nodules (Peyer patches) (transverse section).
FIGURE 15.7 ¦ Villi of small intestine (longitudinal and transverse sections).
FIGURE 15.8 Ultrastructure of microvilli from an absorptive cell in the small intestine.
SECTION 2—LARGE INTESTINE (COLON)
FIGURE 15.9 ¦ Large intestine: colon and mesentery (panoramic view, transverse section).
Figure 15.10 ¦ Large intestine: colon wall (transverse section).
Figure 15.11 ¦ Large intestine: colon wall (transverse section). .
Figure 15.12 ¦ Appendix (panoramic view, transverse section).
Figure 15.13 ¦ Rectum (panoramic view, transverse section).
Figure 15.14 ¦ Anorectal junction (longitudinal section).
Chapter Summary—Sections 1 and 2
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1 and 2
 
CHAPTER 16: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PART IV: ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE ORGANS
(LIVER, PANCREAS, AND GALLBLADDER)
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 16.1 ¦ A section from the liver and the pancreas is illustrated, with emphasis on the details of the liver lobule and the duct system of the exocrine pancreas.
Section 1—Liver
FIGURE 16.1 ¦ Pig liver lobules (panoramic view, transverse section).
FIGURE 16.2 ¦ Primate liver lobules (panoramic view, transverse section).
FIGURE 16.3 ¦ Bovine liver: liver lobule (transverse section).
FIGURE 16.4 ¦ Liver lobule (sectional view, transverse section).
FIGURE 16.5 ¦ Bile canaliculi in liver lobule: osmic acid preparation.
FIGURE 16.6 ¦ Kupffer cells in a liver lobule (India ink preparation).
FIGURE 16.7 ¦ Glycogen granules in liver cells.
FIGURE 16.8 ¦ Reticular fibers in the sinusoids of a liver lobule.
FIGURE 16.9 Liver sinusoids, space of Disse, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells in a liver lobule.
Section 2—Pancreas
FIGURE 16.10 ¦ Exocrine and endocrine pancreas (sectional view).
FIGURE 16.11 ¦ Pancreatic islet.
FIGURE 16.12 ¦ Pancreatic islet (special preparation).
FIGURE 16.13 ¦ Pancreas: endocrine (pancreatic islet) and exocrine regions. .
FIGURE 16.14 Immunohistochemical preparation of mammalian pancreatic islet.
Section 3—Gallbladder
FIGURE 16.15 ¦ Wall of gallbladder.
Chapter Summary—Sections 1, 2 and 3
Chapter Review Questions—Sections 1, 2, and 3
 
CHAPTER 17: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
 
Overview Figure 17.1 ¦ A section of the lung is illustrated in three dimensions and in transverse section, with emphasis on the internal structure of the respiratory bronchiole and alveolar cells.
FIGURE 17.1 ¦ Olfactory mucosa and superior concha in the nasal cavity (panoramic view).
FIGURE 17.2 ¦ Olfactory mucosa: details of a transitional area.
FIGURE 17.3 ¦ Olfactory mucosa in the nose: transition area.
FIGURE 17.4 ¦ Epiglottis (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 17.5 ¦ Frontal section of larynx.
FIGURE 17.6 ¦ Trachea (transverse section).
FIGURE 17.7 ¦ Tracheal wall (sectional view).
FIGURE 17.8 ¦ Lung (panoramic view).
FIGURE 17.9 ¦ Intrapulmonary bronchus (transverse section).
FIGURE 17.10 Intrapulmonary bronchus, cartilage plates, and surrounding alveoli of the lung. FIGURE 17.11 ¦ Terminal bronchiole (transverse section).
FIGURE 17.12 ¦ Respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, and lung alveoli.
FIGURE 17.13¦ Lung: terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveoli, and blood vessel.
FIGURE 17.14 ¦ Alveolar walls and alveolar cells.
FIGURE 17.15 ¦ Section of the lung alveoli adjacent to a terminal bronchiole.
FIGURE 17.16 ¦ Ultrastructure of lung showing a portion of a bronchiole wall and adjacent alveoli.
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
CHAPTER 18: URINARY SYSTEM
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 18.1 ¦ A sagittal section of the kidney shows the cortex and medulla, with blood vessels and the excretory ducts, including the pelvis and the ureter and a histologic comparison of blood vessels, the different tubules of the nephron, and the collecting ducts.
FIGURE 18.1 ¦ Kidney: cortex, medulla, pyramid, and renal papilla (panoramic view).
FIGURE 18.2 ¦ Kidney cortex and upper medulla.
FIGURE 18.3 ¦ Kidney cortex: juxtaglomerular apparatus.
FIGURE 18.4 ¦ Kidney cortex: renal corpuscle, juxtaglomerular apparatus, and convoluted tubules.
FIGURE 18.5 ¦ Ultrastructure of cells in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney.
Figure 18.6 Ultrastructure of apical cell surface in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney.
FIGURE 18.7 ¦ Kidney: scanning electron micrograph of podocytes (visceral epithelium of glomerular (Bowman) capsule) surrounding the glomerular capillaries.
FIGURE 18.8 ¦ Kidney: transmission electron micrograph of podocyte and adjacent capillaries in the renal corpuscle.
Figure 18.9 ¦ Kidney medulla: papillary region (transverse section).
FIGURE 18.10 ¦ Kidney medulla: terminal end of papilla (longitudinal section)..
Figure 18.11 ¦ Kidney: ducts of medullary region (longitudinal section). .
Figure 18.12 ¦ Urinary system: ureter (transverse section).
Figure 18.13 ¦ Section of a ureter wall (transverse section).
Figure 18.14 ¦ Ureter (transverse section).
Figure 18.15 ¦ Urinary bladder: wall (transverse section).
FIGURE 18.16¦ Urinary bladder: contracted mucosa (transverse section).
FIGURE 18.17 ¦ Urinary bladder: stretched mucosa (transverse section).
Chapter Summary
Chapter Review Questions
 
CHAPTER 19: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 19.1 ¦ Hypothalamus and hypophysis (pituitary gland). A section of hypothalamus and hypophysis illustrates the neuronal, axonal, and vascular connections between the hypothalamus and the hypophysis. Also illustrated are the major target cells, tissues, and organs of the hormones that are produced by both the anterior (adenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis) pituitary gland.
SECTION 1—HORMONES AND PITUITARY GLAND
FIGURE 19.1 ¦ Hypophysis: adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis (panoramic view, sagittal section).
FIGURE 19.2 ¦ Hypophysis: sections of pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars nervosa.
FIGURE 19.3 ¦ Pars distalis of adenohypophysis: acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes. ion.
Figure 19.4 ¦ Cell types in the hypophysis. Stain: modified azan. Oil immersion.
FIGURE 19.5 ¦ Hypophysis: pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars nervosa (human).
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Section 1
OVERVIEW FIGURE 19.2 ¦ Thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and adrenal gland. The microscopic organization and general location in the body of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands are illustrated.
SECTION 2 ¦ Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Glands, and Adrenal Gland
Figure 19.6 ¦ Thyroid gland: canine (general view).
FIGURE 19.7 ¦ Thyroid gland follicles, follicular cells, and parafollicular cells (sectional view). Figure 19.8 ¦ Thyroid and parathyroid glands: canine (sectional view).
Figure 19.9 ¦ Thyroid gland and parathyroid gland.
Figure 19.10 ¦ Cortex and medulla of adrenal (suprarenal) gland.
Figure 19.11 ¦ Adrenal (suprarenal) gland: cortex and medulla.
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Section 2
 
CHAPTER 20: MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 20.1 ¦ Location of the testes and the accessory male reproductive organs, with emphasis on the internal organization of the testis, the different phases of spermiogenesis, and the structure of a mature sperm.
SECTION 1—TESTIS
Figure 20.1 ¦ Peripheral section of testis (sectional view).
Figure 20.2 ¦ Testis: seminiferous tubules (transverse section).
FIGURE 20.3 ¦ Primate testis: spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules (transverse section).
FIGURE 20.4 Cross section of seminiferous tubules showing supportive Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and spermatids in different stages of development.
Figure 20. 5 ¦ Primate testis: different stages of spermatogenesis.
FIGURE 20.6 Ultrastructure of Sertoli cell and surrounding cells.
FIGURE 20.7 ¦ Seminiferous tubules, straight tubules, rete testis, and efferent ductules (ductuli efferentes).
FIGURE 20.8 ¦ Ductuli efferentes and tubules of the ductus epididymis.
Figure 20.9 ¦ Tubules of the ductus epididymis (transverse section).
Figure 20.10 ¦ Ductus (vas) deferens (transverse section).
Figure 20.11 ¦ Ampulla of the ductus (vas) deferens.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Section 1
SECTION 2—Accessory Reproductive Sex Glands
Figure 20.12 ¦ Prostate gland and prostatic urethra.
FIGURE 20.13 ¦ Prostate gland: glandular acini and prostatic concretions.
Figure 20.14 ¦ Prostate gland: prostatic glands with prostatic concretions.
Figure 20.15 ¦ Seminal vesicle. 
Figure 20.16 ¦ Bulbourethral gland.
Figure 20.17 ¦ Human penis (transverse section).
Figure 20.18 ¦ Penile urethra (transverse section).
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Section 2
 
CHAPTER 21: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 21.1 ¦ The anatomy of the female reproductive organs is presented in detail, with emphasis on the ovary and the sequence of changes during follicular development, culminating in ovulation and corpus luteum formation. In addition, the changes in the uterine wall during the menstrual cycle are correlated with pituitary hormones and ovarian functions.
SECTION 1—OVARY AND UTERUS
FIGURE 21.1 ¦ Ovary (panoramic view). Different stages of follicular development.
FIGURE 21.2 ¦ Ovary: Longitudinal section of a feline (cat) ovary showing numerous follicles and corpora lutea.
FIGURE 21.3 ¦ Ovary: A section of ovarian cortex and developing follicles.
FIGURE 21.4 ¦ Ovary: Ovarian cortex and primordial and primary follicles.
FIGURE 21.5 ¦ Ovary: Primordial and primary follicles.
FIGURE 21.6 ¦ Ovary: Maturing ovarian follicle in feline (cat) ovary.
FIGURE 21.7 ¦ Ovary: Primary oocyte and wall of a mature follicle.
FIGURE 21.8 ¦ Corpus luteum (panoramic view).
FIGURE 21.9 ¦ Corpus luteum: Theca lutein cells and granulosa lutein cells.
FIGURE 21.10 ¦ Human ovary: A section of corpus luteum and corpus albicans.
FIGURE 21.11 ¦ Uterine tube: Ampulla with mesosalpinx ligament (panoramic view, transverse section).
FIGURE 21.12 ¦ Uterine tube: Mucosal folds.
FIGURE 21.13 ¦ Uterine tube: Lining epithelium.
FIGURE 21.14 ¦ Uterine wall: Proliferative (follicular) phase.
FIGURE 21.15 ¦ Uterine wall: Secretory (luteal) phase.
FIGURE 21.16 ¦ Uterine wall (endometrium): Secretory (luteal) phase.
FIGURE 21.17 ¦ Uterine wall: Menstrual phase.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Section 1
SECTION 2—CERVIX, VAGINA, PLACENTA, AND MAMMARY GLANDS
FIGURE 21.18 ¦ Cervix, cervical canal, and vaginal fornix (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 21.19 ¦ Vagina (longitudinal section).
FIGURE 21.20 ¦ Glycogen in human vaginal epithelium.
FIGURE 21.21 ¦ Vaginal smears collected during different reproductive phases.
FIGURE 21.22 ¦ Vaginal surface epithelium. Stain: hematoxylin and eosin.
FIGURE 21.23 ¦ Human placenta (panoramic view).
FIGURE 21.24 ¦ Chorionic villi: placenta during early pregnancy.
FIGURE 21.25 ¦ Chorionic villi: placenta at term.
FIGURE 21.26 ¦ Inactive mammary gland.
FIGURE 21.27 ¦ Mammary Gland: Micrograph of inactive mammary gland.
FIGURE 21.28 ¦ Mammary gland during proliferation and early pregnancy.
FIGURE 21.29 Mammary Gland: During activation and early development.
FIGURE 21.30 ¦ Mammary gland during late pregnancy
FIGURE 21.31 ¦ Mammary gland during lactation.
FIGURE 21.32 ¦ Lactating mammary gland.
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Section 2
 
CHAPTER 22: ORGANS OF SPECIAL SENSES: VISUAL AND AUDITORY SYSTEMS
 
OVERVIEW FIGURE 22.1 ¦ The internal structures of the eye and the ear are illustrated, with emphasis on the cells that constitute the photosensitive retina and the hearing organ of Corti.
SECTION 1—VISUAL SYSTEM
Figure 22.1 ¦ Eyelid (sagittal section).
Figure 22.2 ¦ Lacrimal gland.
Figure 22.3 ¦ Cornea (transverse section).
Figure 22.4 ¦ Whole eye (sagittal section).
FIGURE 22.5 ¦ Posterior eyeball: sclera, choroid, optic papilla, optic nerve, retina, and fovea (panoramic view).
Figure 22.6 ¦ Layers of the choroid and retina (detail).
Figure 22.7 ¦ Eye: layers of retina and choroid.
FIGURE 22.8 ¦ Section of posterior eyeball showing the retina with the depression fovea. FIGURE 22.9 ¦ Optic papilla (optic diks), optic nerve, and a section of retina in the posterior region of the eyeball.
FIGURE 22.10 ¦ Section of the posterior retina with yellow pigment of the macula lutea.
Chapter Summary—Section 1
Chapter Review Questions—Section 1
SECTION 2—AUDITORY SYSTEM
Figure 22.11 ¦ Inner ear: cochlea (vertical section).
Figure 22.12 ¦ Inner ear: cochlear duct (scala media).
Figure 22.13 ¦ Inner ear: cochlear duct and the organ of Corti.
FIGURE 22.14 ¦ Inner ear: organ of Corti in the cochlear duct.
Chapter Summary—Section 2
Chapter Review Questions—Section 2
 
APPENDIX ¦ Answers to Chapter Review Questions
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